Gem cutting, also known as lapidary, involves shaping and polishing gemstones to enhance their appearance and value. There are several common gem cutting methods, each suited to different types of gemstones and desired results. Here are some of the common gem cutting methods:
This is the most common and traditional cut for diamonds. It features 57 or 58 facets that maximize the stone’s brilliance and fire. The round brilliant cut is the most well-known.
Step cuts, such as the emerald cut, involve long, rectangular facets that create a stepped appearance. This cut is used for gemstones like emeralds and rectangular diamonds.
The princess cut is a square or rectangular cut with pointed corners. It’s often used for diamonds and other transparent gems.
Oval cuts have a similar brilliance to round cuts but with a more elongated shape. They are used for a variety of gems, including sapphires and emeralds.
Pear cuts resemble a teardrop and are used for various gems. They can be set as pendants or in rings.
Marquise cuts are elongated and pointed at both ends, creating a boat-like shape. They are often used for diamonds.
Cabochon cutting involves shaping a gem into a smooth, rounded, and polished shape without facets. This cut is commonly used for opaque gemstones like opals and moonstones.
The rose cut is a historical cut with a flat bottom and a domed, faceted top resembling a rosebud. It’s commonly used for diamonds and other transparent gems.
The cushion cut is a square or rectangular cut with rounded corners, which gives the gem a softer appearance. It’s used for a variety of gemstones.
Gem cutting requires skill and precision to maximize a stone’s beauty and value, and the choice of cut depends on the type of gemstone, its quality, and the desired final appearance. Different cuts can bring out various optical properties, such as brilliance, fire, and color, in a gem.